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Tutor: Aimee LeBrun


Changes of state

In a nutshell

Substances can change from one state of matter to another. The processes that happen when a state change occurs are: condensation, freezing, melting and evaporation. 

Change of state


A change of state occurs when one state is changed to another when being heated or cooled.


A liquid is changed to a solid.

Processes occurring when a state is changed 

There are different changes of state that you need to know about. These are described in the table below. 


what is happening

change in state



Cooling of gases

Gas to liquid

Warm air condenses to water at a cold window. 


Cooling of liquids

Liquid to solid

Water turns to solid ice in the freezer. 


Heating of solids

Solid to liquid

An ice lolly will melt if left in the sun, turning to a liquid. 


Heating of liquids

Liquid to gas

A glass of water left in the sun will be heated and turned to water vapour.

Note: Different materials will change states at different temperatures. The temperature that water will freeze at is 0 °C0 \, \degree C. The temperature that water will evaporate at is 100 °C100 \, \degree C. This is called the boiling point of water.


A material has changed state from a solid to a liquid. What type of process is happening?

The solid is being heated to form a liquid. A melting process is occurring. For example, a solid ice cube can melt and turn into liquid water.

Science; States of matter; KS2 Year 4; Changes of state

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FAQs - Frequently Asked Questions

How does one state change to another state?

What is a state change?

What are the four ways a state change can occur?


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