Seeds, seed dispersal and germination

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Seeds, seed dispersal and germination

In a nutshell

A fertilised egg becomes a seed. The seed is dispersed and germinates to produce a new plant. 

Seed formation

After fertilisation, the flower dies and the petals fall off. This leaves behind a fruit with seeds. The ovary becomes the fruit and it contains the seeds. Some fruits can be recognised easily (such as common edible fruits) but some fruits can not be easily recognised and they might be dry and tough. 

Seed dispersal

The seeds must be moved away from the parent plant to prevent overcrowding. If too many plants grow in the same area, they may not get all the light and water they need to make their food. This means some of the plants may die. There are various ways that seeds can be dispersed.



The fruits may be eaten by animals and the seeds may come out in their droppings. Fruits may also get stuck to some animals and they can carry them away.
If the fruit is light then the seeds can be carried by the wind. 

Dandelions are carried in the wind.
Some fruits are pods and they can dry up. When they dry up, they split open and release their seeds. 

Peas grow in pods and disperse by explosion.



Germination is when seeds start to grow. A seed will germinate when the environment is just right. To be able to germinate, the seeds need warmth, air and water. Seeds do not need light to germinate as they have their own food store. 

Science; Plants; KS2 Year 3; Seeds, seed dispersal and germination

The seed will crack and a root will form that grows downwards into the soil in search of water and nutrients.
A small shoot will grow upwards towards the light. 
Eventually, the shoot will grow leaves that can photosynthesise to produce food for the new plant.

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