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2D shapes: Types and properties

2D shapes: Types and properties

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Summary

2D shapes: Types and properties

In a nutshell

2D shapes are flat shapes that are sometimes called plane shapes. There are many different types of 2D shapes. Regular polygons have equal side lengths and equal angles.



Polygons

Polygons are straight-sided shapes. Regular polygons have sides of equal length, and equal angles. Irregular polygons have at least one side or angle that is different in size. Below are examples of polygons. 


Examples
  • A triangle has three sides.

Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties

  • A quadrilateral is a shape that has four sides.
Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties


  • A pentagon has five sides.

Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties

  • A hexagon has six sides.

Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties

  • A heptagon has seven sides.

Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties

  • An octagon has eight sides.

Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties



Quadrilaterals

Quadrilaterals are four-sided shapes. There are a number of different types of quadrilateral:


Square

  • Four sides of equal length.
  • Four right angles.
  • The diagonals meet at right angles.
  • Two pairs of parallel sides.


Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties


Rectangle

  • Two pairs of equal sides.
  • Four right angles.
  • Two pairs of parallel sides.


Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties


Rhombus

  • Four sides of equal length.
  • Opposite sides are parallel.
  • Opposite angles are equal.


Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties


Parallelogram

  • Opposite sides are the same length.
  • Opposite sides are parallel.
  • Opposite angles are equal.


Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties


Trapezium

  • One pair of parallel sides.

Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties


Kite

  • Two pairs of equal sides next to each other.
  • No sides are parallel.


Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties



Triangles

A triangle is a 2D plane shape with three straight sides and three angles. There are four types of triangle:


Equilateral triangle

  • All three sides are equal.
  • All three angles are equal.


Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties


Isosceles triangle

  • Two sides are equal.
  • Two angles are equal.


Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties


Scalene triangle

  • All sides are different.
  • All angles are different.


Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties


Right angled triangle

  • One angle is a right angle.


Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties



Circles

A circle is a shape made up of all points in a plane that are a fixed distance from the centre. There are a number of properties of a circle:

  • Radius - the distance from the edge to the centre of a circle.
  • Diameter - the distance across a circle through its centre.
  • Circumference - the length of the outside edge of a circle.

Note: The diameter of a circle is twice the radius.


Maths; Geometry - properties of shapes; KS2 Year 3; 2D shapes: Types and properties

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FAQs - Frequently Asked Questions

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